Colorful Yunnan • Legend
According to the legend, in the Western Han Dynasty, Liu Che (Emperor Wu of Han) heard that there was an ancient road in the southwest leading to Sindhu (India) and this road could be found only when a colorful cloud appears in the sky. One day, the emperor finally saw a colorful cloud in the southwest sky. The cloud was so beautiful that he dispatched envoys to track it. The envoys found that cloud finally in Yizhou (Kunming) which had picturesque scenery, harmonious and peaceful environment and thus attracted the colorful cloud staying there. He then dispatched persons there to find that ancient road and finally realized exchanges with India.
Yunnan is called "Yun" or "Dian" for short and is also called the "South of Colorful Clouds".
Geographical location: southwest border of China and geographic center of Asia
Land area: 394,000km2
Population: 47 million (1/3 of which is the minority population)
Administrative division: With Kunming as the provincial capital, it governs 16 prefectures/cities and 129 county-level administrative units.
Yunnan possesses magnificent snow mountains and glaciers in the north, vast tropical rainforests and rare animals and plants in the south, marvelous spectacle "Three Parallel Rivers" in the west and spectacular and magic karst landform in the east. Yunnan has been known as the “Kingdom of Plants”, “Home of Spices”, “Natural Garden” and “Treasury-house of Medical Herbs”. Yunnan has won fame both at home and abroad for its ancient hominid sites, dinosaur fossils and modern historic monuments. In Yunnan, tropical, subtropical, temperate and polar plant communities are distributed. There are mountains and rivers such as Gaoligong Mountains, Nujiang River, Yunling Mountains, Biluo Snow Mountain and Lancang River, as well as such geological wonders as stone forests, soil forests, volcanic clusters, karst caves and geothermal springs. 25 minorities such as Dai, Dong, Yi and Hani live in the vast territory of Yunnan. All these elements show endless charm of beautiful Yunnan.
Situated in the joint of Chinese cultural circle, Indian cultural circle and Southeast Asian cultural circle, Yunnan is a significant node in the culture network of peoples of Asia and is the most precious co-existence treasury of human cultural heritages. Localism, marginality, tolerance and diversity of cultures of different ethnic groups have given birth to distinctive, rich and colorful ethnic cultures and folk customs such as world-known Dongba Culture of the Naxi nationality, Pattra-leaf Culture of the Dai nationality, Solar Calendar Culture of the Yi nationality and Terraced Culture of the Hani nationality. There are 25 minorities in Yunnan which is the largest ethnic minority province in China. Some minorities use different languages and characters and show geographical characteristics in terms of clothing, food, architecture, folklore, festivals, etc. Colorful ethnic customs, long history and splendid culture have shown the beautiful image of Yunnan as the "grand view park of ethnic cultures".
Yunnan has broad development space and great development potentials and faces rare development opportunities. With the introduction of the Implementation Scheme for Construction of the Economy and Trade Center Facing South Asia and Southeast Asia in Yunnan Province, Yunnan will actively seize strategic opportunities in the construction of the “Belt and Road Initiative” and the development of the Yangtze River Economic Zone to quicken the construction of the said economy and trade center facing South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is intended to significantly enhance the concentration of commercial element resources and the influence, basically form the internationalized and diversified pattern of economic and trading subjects, comprehensively improve the level of economic and trade supporting services, and better the function system of the regional business and trade center, logistics center, international aviation hub, international communication hub, e-commerce center as well as convention center by 2020.
Yunnan will continuously deepen regional cooperation both at home and abroad. Yunnan will actively participate in the construction of Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM) Economic Corridor and China-Indochina Peninsula International Economic Corridor to enhance Greater Mekong Sub-region Economic Cooperation, improve the cooperation mechanism with India, Myanmar, northern Vietnam and northern Laos and deepen the cooperation with Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan.
Yunnan has witnessed a steady and rapid economic growth, a significant improvement in GDP and GDP per capita throughout this province, a steady increase in general budget revenue of local finance and a rise in overall CPI. In recent five years, total imports and exports have exceeded USD 120 billion and total foreign investment has exceeded RMB 2 trillion (the same below). In 2016, Yunnan Province realized a GDP of RMB 1,487 billion with a year-on-year growth of 8.7% and realized the fixed-asset investment of RMB 1,566.3 billion with a year-on-year growth of 19.8%. Total foreign investment reached RMB 747.5 billion with a year-on-year growth of 14.3%.
It is proposed in the 13th Five-Year Plan that Yunnan plans to take "openness, innovation, high-end orientation, informationization and greening" as its core to promote the industrial transformation and upgrading, optimize the industrial structure and establish a modern characteristic industrial system. Yunnan will adhere to the development concepts of "innovation, harmony, green, opening-up and sharing” to realize the development objectives such as sustained economic growth at a medium-to-high speed, transformation of the industrial structure to the medium-to-high level, steady improvement of the infrastructure as well as remarkable results in construction of open economy and realize sustained and steady development of economy of the whole province.
Superior Location and Traffic
Outstanding Resource Endowment
Comfortable Living Environment
Yunnan is speeding up building itself into a center driving the development of South and Southeast Asia and thus faces rare development opportunities and has bright development prospect and broad development space.
Yunnan will seize the opportunity of implementation of multiple national major development strategies in Yunnan. Based on its advantages regarding location, resources and opening-up and the like, it will make the most of domestic and overseas markets and resources and accelerate the leaping development.
Superior Location and Traffic
As the geographic center of Asia, Yunnan has very special geographic location by connecting "Three Asias" (Southeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia), adjoining "Two Oceans" (Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean) and neighboring "Two Gulfs" (Beibu Gulf and Bay of Bengal) and has unique regional advantages of "leading to the coastal areas by connecting Guizhou and Guangxi in the east, reaching the Central Plains via Sichuan and Chongqing in the north, heading down south to Thailand and Cambodia through Vietnam and Laos, and interconnecting with India and Pakistan by bordering Myanmar in the west”.
By accelerating the construction of "Five Networks" - road network, aviation network, energy network, water network and Internet, Yunnan aims to establish a comprehensive infrastructure system that can effectively support its development and better serve national strategies.
As the only province in China enjoying a land access to Southeast Asia and South Asia, Yunnan directs up north to connect the northern Silk Road Economic Belt, heads down south to connect the Maritime Silk Road, leads east to connect the "Yangtze River Delta" via the Yangtze River Economic Belt and goes west through BCIM Economic Corridor to link countries around the Indian Ocean. Yunnan is closely bound with Southeast Asian and South Asian countries through the Ancient Tea Horse Road, Ledo Road, the Hump and China-India Petroleum Pipeline.
Roads: The highway traffic mileage of Yunnan is 4,134km. There are more than 20 trans-national highways and five great international passages (China-Vietnam, China-Laos-Thailand, China-Myanmar (two) and China-India). By 2020, the highway traffic mileage will be up to 8,000km, meaning substantial completion of the construction of "seven trans-provincial and five trans-national" passages.
Railways: The operating railway mileage of Yunnan is nearly 3,650km. The railway network composed of "eight trans-provincial and five trans-national" railways (China-Vietnam, China-Laos, China-Myanmar, China-Myanmar-India and China-Thailand) leading to Southeast Asia and South Asia and radiating the inland areas has been substantially constructed. By 2020, the operating railway mileage will be up to 8,000km.
Aviation: Yunnan has 15 airports in operation and has launched as many as 406 domestic and international flight routes. By 2020, there will 70 airports (including those under construction and in operation) and more than 460 flight routes. Moreover, Yunnan will take Kunming as the center to open international routes directing to Southeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia and directly heading to Europe and America.
Waterways: The inland waterway mileage has reached 4,294km, with the shipping network composed of "two trans-provincial and three trans-national lanes" directly leading to Thailand, Vietnam and Myanmar and to Central China, Eastern China and Southern China, and connecting with Hong Kong SAR and Macao SAR.
Port: Yunnan has 25 international ports, with trading partners from around the world. In 2016, Yunnan realized the exports and imports in frontier trade of RMB 35.56 billion.
Outstanding Resource Endowment
Yunnan is one of the provinces with the richest resources in China and ranks the sixth in terms of total resources. Its per capita quantity of resources is twice the national average.
Biological resources: Yunnan accommodates abundant species resources, including 63% of higher plants, 70% of Chinese herbal medicines and 59% of vertebrates of China. It has long been known as "Kingdom of Plants", "Kingdom of Animals", "Home of Flowers" "Home of Medical Herbs", and "Biological Gene Pool".
Tourism resources: 12% of Chinese scenic spots are distributed in Yunnan. There are well-protected ecological scenery spots, mild and pleasant landscape climate, beautiful natural scenery and colorful ethnic customs.
Mineral resources: Reserves of 54 among the 150 kinds of discovered minerals rank among national top 10 respectively and those of 25 among national top 3 respectively. There are substantial reserves of such mineral resources as tin, copper, lead-zinc and phosphate. The proved reserve of coal resources is 24 billion tons ranking ninth nationally. Yunnan is a national important construction base of "mutual development of mineral resources and electric power industry", the energy base of "electric power transmission from the west to the east" and a production base of tin, copper and phosphate fertilizer.
Hydropower resources: There are six famous river systems running through the province, namely, Jinsha River, Lancang River, Nujiang River, Red River, Pearl River, and Irrawaddy River. Besides, there are more than 600 rivers with large capacity, blessing Yunnan with very abundant hydropower resources. The exploitable installed capacity is 95.7 million kW, taking up 25% of the exploitable hydropower in China and ranking the second in China.
Clean energy: Such types of new energy resources as wind power, solar power, geothermal energy and biomass energy have very superior advantages. The installed wind power capacity is 700,000 kW, with an effective wind power density of greater than 160W/m2. 76% of the reserve of solar power is available for exploitation and the number of effective utilization hours is up to 6,000. In 124 counties in the province, there are 654 natural geothermal outcrop points, ranking the first in China. The accumulated natural heat flow is 164,000 kilocalories per second, on top in China.